Sea buckthorn juice contains 18 types of amino acids which includes all eight (nine) essential amino acids---isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine,tryptophan and valine. Later research has shown that over long periods of time a ninth amino acid, histidine, is also essential.

Our bodies need twenty different amino acids, but we are able to make the other eleven kinds from these nine, which we must get from food.


Constituents of Sea Buckthorn

Essential Amino acids

Although we must consume a relatively large amount of nutrients each day, we can get along on a suprisingly small number of them. Our bodies are still very effective chemical factories and generate for themselves most of the substances they need. We produce, for example, as many as 50 000 different kinds of protein, and we can manufacture all but 8 (9) of the 22 amino acids we need to make these proteins. It is those substances we cannot produce for ourselves, or cannot produce in sufficient quantities, that are the essential nutrients -- the basic stuff of life.


Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required to produce vitamin B3 (niacin). Tryptophan is also necessary for the production serotonin, a neurotransmitter that transfers nerve impulses from one cell to another and is responsible for normal sleep. Tryptophan alleviates stress, is good for the heart, controls hyperactivity in children and enhances the release of growth hormone.

Tryptophan has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia in people who cannot metabolize it properly. When improperly metabolized, it creates a waste product in the brain that is toxic, causing hallucinations and delusions. Tryptophan has also been indicated as an aid for schizophrenic patients.

Clinical research tended to confirm tryptophan's effectiveness as a natural sleep aid and for a growing variety of other conditions typically associated with low serotonin levels or activity in the brain. (particulary Work by Dr. Wurtman at MIT).


Lysine is a basic building block of all protein. It is required for growth and bone development in children, assists in calcium absorption and maintaining the correct nitrogen balance in the body and maintaining lean body mass. Lysine is also needed to produce antibodies, hormones, enzymes, collagen formation as well as repair of tissue.

It is an essential amino acid, and the human nutritional requirement is 1–1.5 g daily. A deficiency in lysine can result in a deficiency in niacin (which is a B Vitamin). This can cause the disease pellagra. Lysine can also be used as a nutritional supplement to help against herpes.


Methionine plays a role in cysteine, carnitine and taurine synthesis by the transsulfuration pathway, lecithin production, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and other phospholipids. Improper conversion of methionine can lead to atherosclerosis. Methionine is a chelating agent.

Preliminary studies have suggested that methionine (5 grams per day) may help treat some symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.(Smythies JR, Halsey JH. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease with l-methionine. South Med J 1984;77:1577.) However, another form of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) may worsen the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and should be avoided until more is known.

Methionine (2 grams per day) in combination with several antioxidants, reduced pain and recurrences of attacks of pancreatitis in a small but well-controlled trial. ( Uden S, Bilton D, Nathan L, et al. Antioxidant therapy for recurrent pancreatitis: placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1990;4:357–71.)


Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid that is also one of the aromatic amino acids that exhibit ultraviolet radiation absorption properties and is the most commonly found aromatic amino acid.

It can be converted in the body to tyrosine, which in turn is used to synthesize two important neurotransmitters - dopamine and norepinephrine. It is available in three different forms - L-, D- and DL-. The L- form is the most common and the type in which it is incorporated into the body's proteins. The D- form acts as a painkiller and the DL- a combination of the two.

L-Phenylalanine (LPA) is an electrically-neutral amino acid, one of the twenty common amino acids used to biochemically form proteins, coded for by DNA. Its enantiomer, D-phenylalanine (DPA), can be synthesized artificially

The synthesized mix DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA), which is a combination of the D- and L- forms (e.g. a racemate), is used as a nutritional supplement. Research indicates that DLPA can be an effective part of an overall program to fight chronic pain and depression in some cases, including the mood swings of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Some sources contend that DPLA can increase energy and mental alertness, as well as heighten the ability to focus in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).



Threonine is an essential amino acid that helps to maintain the proper balance of protein in the body. It is important for the formation of collagen and elastin in the skin, and aids to fight fatty liver, when combined with aspartic acid and methionine.

Important Threonine Facts:

  • Threonine is present in high concentrations in the heart, central nervous system, and skeletal muscle
  • It enhances the immune system by aiding in the production of antibodies and promotes thymus growth and activity - newborns have high amounts of threonine which decreases with age
  • Threonine requirements increase if high levels of stress or trauma are experienced
  • Other nutrients are better absorbed when threonine is also present


Valine is an essential amino acid and is required for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue and maintaining the nitrogen balance in the body. Valine also assists to regulate blood sugar and energy levels.

In sickle-cell disease, it substitutes for the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in hemoglobin: Because valine is hydrophobic, the hemoglobin does not fold correctly. Valine is uncharged overall, as its R group is neutral, and the charges from its amino and carboxylic acid groups balance out: a zwitterion.


Leucine is the most common amino acid found in proteins, and is essential for optimal growth in infancy and childhood and for nitrogen equilibrium in adults. It is suspected that Leucine assists to regulate blood sugar and energy levels, production of the growth hormone, wound healing as well as the growth and repair of muscle tissue.

Leucine can also assist in the prevention of the breakdown of muscle proteins that may occur after severe stress or trauma.


Isoleucines chemical composition is identical to that of leucine, but the arrangement of its atoms is slightly different, resulting in different properties. Nutritionally, in humans, isoleucine is an essential amino acid. Isoleucine is a hydrophobic amino acid.

Isoleucine is an essential amino acid which is important in stabilising blood sugar and energy levels. Isoleucine is required to create haemoglobin (the oxygen carrying red blood cells which contain iron) and is also involved in blood clot formation. Isoleucine is often used by bodybuilders to help build more muscles.


Histidine is an essential amino acid, which is produced in adequate amounts by adults, but children may have a shortage. Histidine is significant in the growth and repair of tissues. It is important for the maintenance of the myelin sheaths that protect nerve cells, and is needed for the production of both red and white blood cells. Histidine also protects the body from radiation damage and assists in removing heavy metals from the body.

Histidine is metabolized into the neurotransmitter histamine, which is a compound released by immune system cells during an allergic reaction.


Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid which is required to ensure the liver, joints, muscles (including the heart muscle) and skin are kept healthy. Arginine strengthens the immune system, promotes male fertility and is involved in regulating many hormonal processes in the body (the pituitary gland, the pancreas and growth hormone).



Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that helps the body to convert glucose into energy - alanine plays a key role in maintaining glucose levels in the body. Alanine also eliminates excess toxins from the liver.

Alanine is required for the metabolism of glucose and tryptophan and beta-alanine (which is a constituent of vitamin B5 - pantothenic acid) as well as coenzyme A.

Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid as it can be produced in the body. Aspartic Acid is found in abundance in plant proteins, especially in sprouting seeds. L-Aspartic Acid plays a vital role in energy production.

Aspartic acid is of vital importance in the metabolism and construction of other amino acids and biochemicals in the citric acid cycle.

Among the biochemicals that are synthesized from aspartic acid are arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, and several nucleotides

It is needed for stamina, brain and neural health and assists the liver by removing excess ammonia and other toxins from the bloodstream. It is also very important in the functioning of RNA, DNA, as well as the production of immunoglobulin and antibody synthesis.


Cysteine is a sulphur containing non-essential amino acid, which is formed from methioine. It is necessary in the detoxification of the body from harmful toxins. Glycine helps protect the liver and brain from damage. It is required in the manufacture of taurine and is a component of glutathione. Skin nails and hair contain cysteine - and it is not only important in collagen production but also assists in skin elasticity and texture.

Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid is synthesized from a number of amino acids including ornithine and arginine. Glutamic Acid is important in the metabolism of sugars and fats. It also helps with the transportation of potassium across the blood-brain barrier, although itself does not pass this barrier that easily

Glutamic Acid can attach itself to nitrogen atoms in the process of forming glutamine, and this action also detoxifies the body of ammonia. This action is the only way in which the brain can be detoxified from ammonia.--The brain can use glutamic acid as fuel.


Glutamine is found in large amounts in the muscles of the body. Since is found in large amounts in the muscles of the body. Its also passes easily through the blood-brain barrier, it is also known as an excellent brain fuel.

Glutamine is highly in demand throughout the body. It is used in the gut and immune system extensively to maintain optimal performance. 60% of free-form amino acids floating in skeletal muscles is L-glutamine. L-glutamine plays a very important role in protein metabolism, and it appears to be a very important nutrient for body builders. When supplemented, it may help body builders reduce the amount of muscle deterioration that occurs because other tissues that need glutamine will not rob the glutamine stored in the muscle cells.

Glutamine also decreases the craving for sweets and sugar, which is beneficial to people wishing to lose weight.


Glycine is a sweet-tasting, non-essential amino acid that can be produced from serine and threonine, so dietary intake is not essential.

Glycine is required to build protein in the body and synthesis of nucleic acids, the construction of RNA as well as DNA and synthesis of bile acids and other amino acids in the body. Glycine is also found to be useful in assisting with the absorption of calcium in the body. It helps in retarding degeneration of muscles as it helps to supply extra creatine in the body. Glycine is important in the body's manufacture of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.

Glycine is used by the nervous system and functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter makes it important to help prevent epileptic seizures and it is also used in the treatment of manic depression and hyperactivity


Proline is a non-essential amino acid and can be synthesized from glutamic acid and does not require to be obtained from dietary sources.

Proline improves skin texture by aiding in the production of collagen and reducing the loss of collagen through the aging process. Proline works with vitamin C to promote healthy connective tissue. Proline also helps in the maintenance and healing of cartilage and the strengthening of joints, tendons, and muscles (including the heart muscle)


Serine is a non-essential amino acid which is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth. It is also required for the immune system - it assists in the production of antibodies and immunoglobulins.

It is a constituent of brain proteins and nerve coverings and is also important in the formation of cell membranes, involved in the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, and muscle synthesis. It is also used in cosmetics as a skin moisturizer.

The production of serine requires adequate amounts of vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), and folic acid.


Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid which is helpful in the proper functioning of the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands. It also assists in reducing body fat and suppressing the appetite and ensuring healthy production of skin and hair pigment. Tyrosine is used for stress reduction and may be beneficial in narcolepsy, fatigue, anxiety, depression, allergies, headaches as well as drug withdrawal.

Tyrosine is a precursor of the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine - all extremely important in the brain that transmit nerve impulses and prevent depression.

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